CABINET OF MINISTERS OF UKRAINE
оf 7 December 2016, # 932-р
On Approving the Concept of State Climate Change Policy Implementation until 2030
- Approve the Concept of State Climate Change Policy Implementation until 2030, which is attached.
- The Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resource shall develop and submit to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine according to the established procedure a draft action plan for implementation of the Concept approved by this Decree.
Prime Minister of Ukraine
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Decree
of 7 December 2016, # 932-р
of State Climate Change Policy Implementation
Problem to be Resolved
The international community recognized at the outset of the 21st century that climate change is one of the key problems of world development with potentially serious threats for the global economy and international security due to increased direct and indirect risks related to energy security, food and potable water supplies, and sustainable existence of ecosystems, and risks to human health and life.
The countries’ poor ability to adapt to such manifestations of climate change as floods, droughts, coastal erosion, and prolonged periods of abnormal heat could lead to social and economic upheavals. During the last two decades, the issue of climate change has evolved into one of the most acute problems of the global economy and politics in the context of development of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to gradually transition to low-carbon development of all economy sectors and elements of human vital activity.
Taking urgent actions to combat climate change and its effects is one of the objectives stated in a new agenda of sustainable development for the period until the year 2030 approved at the sustainable development summit held in New-York on 25 September 2015.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has found that anthropogenic impact on the climate system is the dominant cause of warming observed since the middle of the 20th century. To avoid catastrophic consequences of climate change it is necessary to achieve such a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as to restrain the increase of average global temperature at significantly below 2oC over the preindustrial levels.
At the global level, the issues related to climate change are currently regulated by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol, and the Paris Agreement.
As party to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol thereto, Ukraine ensures implementation of its obligations under these international treaties; however, the state policy on climate change is fragmentary and is considered as a component of the environmental policy only. Lack of a systemic approach to the climate change problem in general makes it impossible to take management decisions to ensure mitigation and adaptation to climate change within the entire national economy.
At the same time, performance of the new tasks arising from Ukraine’s ratification of the Paris Agreement and subsequent implementation of its provisions will require developing a comprehensive and consistent state policy on climate change in accordance with the policy of international organizations and with due account for advanced world technologies and practices, as well as the specific national circumstances, needs, and priorities.
The urgency of addressing the climate change problem is due to the following:
the need of improving the legislative framework in this area;
insufficiently clear distribution of functions, poor coordination of actions and low institutional capacity of government agencies with regard to planning and implementation of activities in this area;
lack of coordination between the climate change policy and the legislative and other regulatory acts in other socioeconomic areas;
lack of a systemic approach to creating a scientific basis for activities on climate change;
insufficient awareness of the civil society and government agencies about all aspects of the climate change problem and low-carbon development of the country.
The development and subsequent implementation of a comprehensive state policy on climate change harmonized with the international legislation is a complex task due to multidisciplinary nature of the problem. Politically, economically, and scientifically substantiated decisions on climate change should be made for all economy sectors, including energy, industry, agribusiness, transport, water economy, forestry, and housing and communal services, land use, as well as healthcare, and preservation and regeneration of ecosystems.
Concept Goal and Implementation Period
The Concept goal is improving the state policy on climate change in order to achieve country’s sustainable development, creating the legislative and institutional prerequisites for ensuring a gradual transition to low-carbon development with economical, energy, and environmental security and improved well-being of citizens.
The Concept determines the grounds for development of draft laws and other regulatory acts, strategies and their action plans for various components of state policy on climate change.
The Concept will be implemented until the year 2030.
Areas, Ways, and Methods of Resolving the Problem
The main areas of Concept implementation are as follows:
strengthening the institutional capacity for development and implementation of state policy on climate change;
prevention of climate change through reduction of anthropogenic emissions and increased greenhouse gas absorption to ensure gradual transition to low-carbon development of the country;
adapting to climate change, increasing the resilience and reducing the risks linked to climate change.
Strengthening the institutional capacity for development and implementation of state policy on climate change shall be achieved by:
ensuring coordination of the state policy on climate change with the legislative and other regulatory acts, which set forth the strategic decisions for achieving country’s sustainable development, development of the energy sector, industry, housing and communal services, and other sectors of the economy, and increasing the energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources;
ensuring an efficient distribution of functions and effective mechanism of coordination between the central and local executive authorities and local self-government bodies in the development and implementation of components of the state policy on climate change in accordance with their competences;
ensuring implementation of climate-related provisions of the Agreement on Association between Ukraine and the European Union, European Atomic Energy Community, and their Member-States;
ensuring implementation of Ukraine’s obligations with regard to reporting under international agreements on climate change;
identifying and implementing effective mechanisms for integration of policy components on climate change into regional development strategies and their implementation plans with due account for the development priorities of regions within respective oblasts, as well as of cities, communities, and villages;
ensuring mobilization of financial resources at the national and local levels, promoting external and internal investments;
increasing the technical and technological capacity of climate observing system and implementing the program of research into climate of Ukraine;
supporting the creation and continuous updating of forecasting models for greenhouse gas emissions under different development scenarios of country’s economy and its individual sectors;
supporting an ongoing evaluation of actual expected climate changes and their consequences, including regional distribution, identification of risks and vulnerability to climate change at the level of territorial communities and economy sectors;
ensuring equal access of citizens to the information about all aspects of addressing the problem of climate change and low-carbon development of the country, including the performance of educational and outreach work;
ensuring participation of the public in making management decisions on climate change;
identifying and implementing a mechanism of public private partnership on climate change;
ensuring implementation of national initiatives on climate change as part of international processes and activities, including those involving implementation of ecosystem approaches.
Prevention of climate change through reduction of anthropogenic emissions and increased greenhouse gas sequestration to ensure gradual transition to low-carbon development of the country shall be achieved by:
reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and meeting the obligations under international treaties on climate change and pursuant to the Intended Nationally-Determined Contribution of Ukraine approved by Ordinance of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated 16 September 2015, #980, while ensuring follow-up review of the level of ambitiousness of this contribution, taking into account the indicators of country’s socioeconomic development;
reducing the energy intensity of Gross Domestic Product pursuant to the Sustainable Development Strategy Ukraine-2020 approved by Edict of the President of Ukraine dated 12 January 2015, #5;
expanding the plan of activities to improve energy efficiency pursuant to the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for the Period until the Year 2020 approved by Ordinance of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated 25 November 2015, #1228;
increasing the share of energy produced from renewable energy sources in the overall structure of country’s energy consumption according to the National Renewable Energy Action Plan for the Period until the Year 2020 approved by Ordinance of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated 1 October 2014, #902;
increasing the amount of greenhouse gas sequestration by implementation of forestry and land use activities;
developing and implementing domestic greenhouse gas emission trading scheme in accordance with the provisions of Directive 2003/87/EC;
appointing a special authorized agency on domestic emission trading scheme;
setting up and ensuring operation of a system for monitoring, reporting, and verification of greenhouse gas emissions;
improving approaches to environmental taxation with regard to greenhouse gas emission, including establishment of a mechanism for targeted allocation;
introducing market and non-market mechanisms intended to reduce anthropogenic emissions or increase sequestration of greenhouse gases;
determining the role of nuclear energy based on findings of an in-depth analysis of possible risks and benefits of achieving the country’s targets of reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions;
development and implementation of a medium-term low-carbon development strategy of Ukraine for the period until the year 2030 coordinated with the strategies and development plans of economy sectors and regional development strategies.
Adapting to climate change, increasing the resilience and reducing the risks linked to climate change shall be achieved by:
developing and implementing effective climate change adaptation activities and strengthening the resilience to climate related risks and natural disasters in the areas of healthcare, human life and activities, economy sectors, and natural ecosystems;
developing and implementing a mechanism of adaptation policy creation based on the principle of proceeding from the local/regional to the national level, giving the priority to activities of those communities and sectors of economy, which are the most vulnerable to climate change effects;
determining and implementing the approaches and technologies, which provide for a balanced management of natural ecosystems;
establishing a nationwide system of managing the risks caused by change of frequency and intensity of extreme weather effects and natural disasters in the territory of Ukraine, as well as human migration due to climatic factors;
implementing cross-border projects of climate change adaptation with neighboring partner countries;
developing and implementing a medium-term strategy of climate change adaptation of Ukraine for the period until the year 2030, coordinated with the strategies and development plans of economy sectors and regional development strategies.
Implementation of the Concept will make it possible to:
improve the state policy on climate change and strengthen the institutional capacity for its implementation;
ensure implementation of all the obligations of Ukraine under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and other international treaties on climate change, Agreement on Association between Ukraine and the European Union, and the European Atomic Energy Community, and their Member-States;
ensure achievement in 2030 of the Intended Nationally-Determined Contribution, which will not exceed 60 percent of the baseline year 1990 level, and envisage review by the year 2020 of the level of its ambitious, taking into account the indicators of country’s socioeconomic development;
ensure reduction of energy intensity of Gross Domestic Product by 20 percent by the end of 2020 and provide for the energy intensity to gradually approach the respective indicators of the developed countries with similar climatic, geographic, and economical conditions;
ensure achieving in 2020 of the indicative national energy saving target of 9 percent of the average internal end use of energy;
ensure achieving by 2020 of the share of energy produced from renewable energy sources of 11 percent of the overall structure of country’s energy consumption, and provide for gradual increase of such share;
increase the amount of sequestration of greenhouse gases by implementing forestry and land use activities;
ensure the legislative and regulatory regulation of market and non-market instruments of reducing anthropogenic emissions and increasing sequestration of greenhouse gases, including implementation of an domestic emissions trading scheme and improvement of environmental taxation with regard to greenhouse gas emissions;
increase the efficiency of climate change adaptation activities aimed at minimizing the current and anticipated negative effects and introducing a nationwide system of managing the risks caused by the change of frequency and intensity of extreme weather and natural disasters in the territory of Ukraine;
strengthen the capacity of local executive authorities and local self-government bodies to develop and implement the activities of climate change prevention and adaptation;
ensure systemic scientific, methodological, and educational support to all aspect of activities related to climate change;
increase the educational and professional level of managerial staff in the field of climate change;
raise awareness of the civil society in all aspects of the climate change problem and country’s low-carbon development;
increase the level of public participation in the management decision-making on climate change;
mobilize additional resources for implementation of the state policy on climate change as part of public private partnerships, including at the expense of internal and external investments;
improve the image and raise the role of Ukraine in international negotiations on climate change;
implement medium-term strategies of low-carbon development and adaptation to climate change.
The Scope of Financial, Material and Technical, and Labor Resources
The scope of financing, material and technical, and labor resources needed for implementation of the Concept shall be determined annually with due account for the capacity of the state and local budgets and the amount of international technical assistance.